• A Nuclear North Korea and Strategic Stability in East Asia 

      Bekkkevold, Jo Inge; Bowers, Ian (IFS Insights;4/2017, Report, 2017)
      North Korea continues to develop ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons despite international condemnation and increasing political and economic isolation. While war is unlikely, expectations of denuclearisation seem ...
    • North Korea in 2016: A new normal? 

      Bowers, Ian (IFS Insights;2/2016, Research report, 2016)
      This IFS Insight examines the political and strategic ramifications of North Korea’s evolving nuclear and missile programmes.
    • Small State Deterrence in the Contemporary World 

      Bowers, Ian (IFS Insights;9, Report, 2018)
      The ambiguity of today’s threat spectrum undermines traditional deterrence concepts. The effective communication of capabilities, the setting of red lines and an understanding of what your opponent values are prerequisites ...